Fountain Court Chambers

London & Singapore

Jacob TurnerCall Date: 2016

Jacob joined Chambers in October 2018. He is a former solicitor-advocate, having qualified in 2014. He has advised individuals, corporates and sovereigns in a variety of commercial matters involving both litigation and arbitration. Jacob accepts instructions in all areas of Chambers’ practice and is happy working both as sole counsel and as part of a team.

Previously, Jacob worked in the Dispute Resolution department at Cleary Gottlieb Steen and Hamilton LLP and as a judicial assistant to Lord Mance at the UK Supreme Court. Jacob is the author of Robot Rules: Regulating Artificial Intelligence (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), which has been cited by Lord Hodge and Lord Sales in extrajudicial speeches on the legal impacts of AI. He is a contributing author to The Law of Artificial Intelligence (Sweet & Maxwell, 2020 – forthcoming). Jacob is also the co-author, with Lord Mance, of Privy Council Practice (OUP, 2017).

Areas of Expertise

  • Aviation
  • Banking & finance
  • Commercial Crime
  • Commercial dispute resolution
  • Fraud: civil
  • Insurance and reinsurance
  • International arbitration
  • Offshore
  • Product liability
  • Professional discipline
  • Professional negligence


Artificial Intelligence

  • Advising a Middle Eastern country on drafting AI regulations
  • Providing training to the judiciary of two countries on novel legal challenges arising from AI
  • Advising several UK organisations on potential legal liability arising from their use of AI, including with regards to requirements under the GDPR
  • Advising part of the UK Government on the governance of AI and duties for public servants
  • Advising one of the world’s largest asset managers and a major venture capital firm on their data and AI policies
  • Jacob also lectures on AI at universities and other institutions, including Oxford, Cambridge, NYU, the Max Planck Institute in Hamburg. Jacob teaches a twice-yearly course on the Regulation of AI at Singapore Management University, and has delivered seminars to the Chinese Government and Military at the invitation of the UN
  • Jacob’s work is regularly cited by regulators in public studies, including by the UK Government in its 2020 report on the impact of AI on the duties of public servants, and by the Law Society in its 2019 study of Algorithms in the Justice System

Commercial Dispute Resolution

  • The Khan Partnership & Anor. v Al Rawas & Anor. – Acting for a judgment creditor seeking to enforce a judgment debt through proceedings including CPR Part 71 (debtors’ examination) mechanism
  • General Asset Management Ltd v Leatherbarrow – Acting for the defendant in a claim for possession made by a lender following a fraudulent disposition concerning the defendant’s property. Claim dismissed, and indemnity costs awarded to the defendant
  • Kadie Kalma & Ors v African Minerals Ltd & Ors – Acting for a mining company in UK litigation in relation to a human rights claim arising from events in Sierra Leone (as a solicitor-advocate). Claim dismissed following a trial
  • Kazakhstan Kagazy & Ors v Zhunus & Ors – Acting for a high net worth individual in a long-running $300m commercial fraud claim in the UK Courts, concerning land, paper-processing and logistics sites in Kazakhstan (as a solicitor-advocate)
  • Assisting counsel for the defendant/applicant in an application to appeal to the Court of Appeal against a judgment in a dispute concerning the sale of Crystal Palace FC (as a pupil)
  • Assisting counsel for the claimant in a misrepresentation claim in relation to a private equity fund (as a pupil)
  • Assisting counsel for the claimant in a professional negligence claim against a barrister for failure to advise properly on a business rates dispute (as a pupil)
  • Assisting counsel for the claimants in a professional negligence claim against a firm of solicitors concerning the sale of the claimants’ bicycle business to a major retailer (as a pupil)

Banking and Finance

  • Jacob is regularly instructed by banks in cases arising under the Consumer Credit Act 1974
  • The ECU Group PLC v HSBC Bank PLc & Ors [2017] EWHC 3011 (Comm) – (as a pupil) Advising a bank on claims arising from alleged manipulation of Forex

International Commercial Arbitration

  • Acting for a co-investor in a dispute before the LCIA concerning a joint venture vehicle in the extractives industry. Value of over $100m
  • Acting for a corporate in the agricultural commodities trading industry in a dispute before SIAC
  • Advising a corporate in the agricultural industry in a potential LCIA dispute concerning the licensing of crops
  • Acting for a corporate in a dispute before the LCIA worth over $100m, including delivering the opening and closing oral submissions (as a solicitor-advocate)
  • Acting for a mining company in several international litigation and arbitration matters arising from alleged bribery in the Republic of Ghana (as a solicitor-advocate)
  • Assisting counsel for the defendant in an investor-state dispute involving an alleged expropriation of an investment in an oil and gas company (as a pupil)

Public International Law

  • Advising an NGO on submissions to the International Criminal Court concerning jurisdiction over the Situation in Palestine
  • Acting for an NGO in preparing several submissions to the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court concerning War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity committed by individuals in the Middle East
  • Acting for an NGO in a complaint to the UK’s National Contact Point tribunal concerning a breach of the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises by a major accountancy firm. The complaint was accepted by the National Contact Point, the final assessment of which called on the accountancy firm to change its global human rights policies
  • Tatneft v Ukraine [2018] EWHC 1797 (Comm) – Acting for the claimant in the enforcement of an arbitral award against Ukraine. Ukraine challenged service on grounds of sovereign immunity. Challenge rejected by High Court (as a solicitor-advocate)
  • Acting for the Russian Federation in numerous enforcement matters arising from the Yukos arbitration (as a solicitor-advocate)
  • Law Debenture Trust Corporation PLC v Ukraine – Acting for the Russian Federation (as bondholder) in a dispute with Ukraine, concerning Ukraine’s default on a $3bn bond (as a solicitor-advocate)
  • NML Capital Ltd v Argentina  – Acting for the Argentine Republic in matters arising from its sovereign debt default, including the seizure of the Argentine Navy’s flagship, The ARA Libertad, in Ghana (as a solicitor-advocate)
  • Poštová banka, a.s. and ISTROKAPITAL SE v. Hellenic Republic  – Acting for the Hellenic Republic in an investor-state arbitration under the ICSID Rules, concerning the legality of the Greek Debt Bail-Out (as a solicitor-advocate)

Criminal/ regulatory

  • Junior counsel to the Dame Linda Dobbs Review, considering whether issues relating to HBOS Reading were investigated and appropriately reported to authorities following Lloyd Banking Group’s acquisition of HBOS
  • Advising a bank in relation to its reporting obligations under POCA
  • Assisting counsel to a regulator in judicial review proceedings concerning the proposed publication by the regulator of a disciplinary report alleged to be critical of a third-party (as a pupil)
  • Assisting counsel for the defendants in a multi-jurisdictional enforcement action concerning allegations of criminality by a bank and its senior employees (as a pupil)


  • Assisting counsel for an insurer in regarding a claim made under a political risk insurance policy in relation to the alleged expropriation of an energy company in South America (as a pupil)
  • Assisting counsel for an insurer concerning a claim arising from a major recall of vehicles due to defective emissions reduction components (as a pupil)
  • Assisting counsel for an insurer in multi-jurisdictional proceedings arising from a train crash in California (as a pupil)
  • Assisting counsel for an insurer in relation to the total loss of an airliner

Professional Discipline

  • Acting for a solicitors’ firm in SRA regulatory proceedings arising from high profile UK litigation
  • Acting for the ICAEW in professional disciplinary proceedings against an individual auditor and a firm, concerning a film financing scheme (as a pupil)
  • Assisting counsel for a claimant in a claim concerning potential negligence by Leading and Junior counsel in a licensing matter (as a pupil)


  • Jacob is regularly instructed by airlines in County Court proceedings arising under Regulation (EC) 261/2004 and the Montreal Convention
  • Advising an aircraft manufacturer on potential liability arising from a fatal helicopter crash
  • Assisting in an insurance dispute concerning a major and high-profile air disaster (as a pupil)


2014:   Higher Courts (Civil Advocacy) Qualification as a Solicitor-Advocate
2011 – 2012:    LPC (Distinction)
2010 – 2011:   LL.M., Harvard Law School
2007 – 2010:    M.A., Jurisprudence, Worcester College, Oxford University (First Class)


Pegasus Scholarship, to participate in an exchange with the US Supreme Court, 2016
Harvard Law School Scholarship, 2010
Martin Wronker prize (for highest mark in the University for Administrative Law in Oxford University Finals), 2010
Lovells prize (for highest marks at Worcester College in Contract, Tort and Administrative Law exams in second year), 2009
Simmons Prize (for performance in Law Moderations), 2008
Worcester College Scholarship, 2008

Other Experience

As Judicial Assistant to Lord Mance (2015-2016), assisted with cases including:

  • Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs v Rahmatullah; Belhaj and Boudchar v Jack Straw MP and Others [2017] UKSC 3
  • Willers v Joyce and another (in substitution for and in their capacity as executors of Albert Gubay (deceased) [2016] UKSC 43 & [2016] UKSC 44
  • Eclairs Group Limited v JKX Oil & Gas Plc [2015] UKSC 71
  • Cavendish Square Holding BV v Talal El Makdessi [2015] UKSC 67

Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP (2012-2017)

  • Trainee (2012-2014)
  • Associate (2014-2017)

Worcester College, Oxford University (2012)

  • Senior Non-Stipendiary Lecturer in Law

King’s College London (2012)

  • Visiting Tutor in Law

Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations, New York (2011).

  • External Legal Consultant and Speechwriter to the Ambassador



  • Robot Rules: Regulating Artificial Intelligence, A guide to how national and international law should address AI. Published by Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.
  • Privy Council Practice, Co-author, with Lord Mance, of the first practitioner guide and textbook on the practice and procedure of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council for 75 years. Published by Oxford University Press, 2017.

Selected Articles

  • The Internet, Competition, Society and Democracy, Concurrences (with Ricardo Zimbron and Maurits Dolmans), (September 2017). Winner of the Best Business Article Award – Antitrust Writing Awards 2018
  • We should regulate, not ban killer robots, The Spectator (August 2017)
  • Remission of an award to a newly constituted tribunal (with Sebastian Lehman), Arbitration (August 2015)
  • ICC – War by Other Means, Criminal Law and Justice Weekly (February 2015)
  • Book Review: The Construction of Commercial Contracts, Lloyd’s Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly (February 2014)
  • Challenging the Bail-In, The Banking Law Journal (with Konrad Rodgers), Vol. 131, No.7 (July 2014)
  • The UK’s new self-defence law opens the door for a Trayvon Martin case, New Statesman (July 2013)
  • Return of the Literal Dead: an Unintended Consequence of Rainy Sky v. Kookmin on Interpretation?, European Journal of Commercial Contract Law (July 2013)
  • Do South African and English Criminal Law share a common purpose?, African Journal of International and Comparative Law (June 2013)
  • Towards a Synthesis Between Islamic and Western Jus in Bello, Florida State University Journal of Transnational Law and Policy (September 2012)
  • Revising the Emergency Provisions of Egypt’s Constitution, Harvard National Security Journal (February 2011)

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